A War Culture in Action: A Study of the Literature of the Crimean War Period

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The portrait itself is a piquant mix of the formal and the rakish. Vicars has posed in civilian clothes rather than regimental uniform.

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A stiff upright collar is offset by an unbuttoned coat and a rather flourishy necktie. Neat pre-campaign whiskers frame a square jaw and determined chin; glossily waving hair, parted fastidiously at the side, accentuates a strong nose and wistfully interrogative gaze. Altogether the image unleashes a tantalizing play of differences: of casual boyish charm and formal manly rigour; of masculine severity and coy feminine whimsy.

The stone records his death while repelling the Russian sortie from Sebastopol on 22 March These Memorials , we are thus reminded, commemorate a death almost as emphatically as they do a life.

Mourning and Mysticism in First World War Literature and Beyond: Grappling with Ghosts

Frontispiece, Memorials of Captain Hedley Vicars. Title page, Memorials of Captain Hedley Vicars. Another part of the Vicars iconography appears in the bottom right of the portrait itself, in the shape of a large but otherwise undistinguishable book, raised at chest height. This volume foreshadows and links two of the most narratively decisive moments of the biography itself. The first is the scene of conversion. As part of his preparation for embarkation, he fulfils a commission from a woman friend — implicitly his biographer Catherine Marsh:.

I think there are two for you to choose from, both as plain as life. I brought my great Halifax Bible to have its portrait taken, as you desired. At the same time this intratextual pattern reminds us of the unembarrassed self-mythologizing — the distinctive mode of unselfconscious self-consciousness — to which evangelical life-writing lent itself. And in this respect it is worth noting that Vicars has chosen the fashionably cutting-edge daguerreotype studio of Thomas Sims for the production of his keepsake; that the portrait has been painstakingly staged; and that it would ultimately be reproduced depending on which of the many editions one studies by such craftsmen as Vincent Brooks, foremost lithographer of Crimean subjects.

Such images were of course a source of comfort and consolation to families waiting and loved ones grieving: in this case the image functions as part of the internal rhetoric of the Memorials as personal commemoration, while at the same time offering a poster boy for Christian militarism. As Ian Bradley has pointed out, within a year seventy thousand copies of the Memorials were in circulation. While Marsh was subsequently able to plough the Hedley Vicars story back into her own ministry to a variety of audiences, confident of recognition for his name and reputation, others picked up and remediated her narrative for their own ends.

Shortly after the end of the war, advertisements began to appear in The Times for lectures on Vicars on behalf of, or to, various reforming organizations.

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Yet any suggestion that Marsh was uniformly successful in promoting Vicars as exemplary Christian soldier to a male audience requires careful scrutiny. To learn the truth about his own potential a man needed to see himself reflected in the love of a woman — mother, sister, lover, or, failing that — given the wild, wandering life which is his destiny — in the reflective surface offered by such noble figures as Florence Nightingale and Catherine Marsh. His piety was as likely to seem priggish as heroic to some male readers, while his appeal to women readers could be interchangeably filial, fraternal, or even erotic.

Certainly, his name was as likely to be dropped, or his grave tenderly visited, by female Crimean memoirists as by male.

You go on, gay, gay, gay, to the very last: listening to what Satan says, and doing all his works. Then comes the death-bed. I remember perfectly well, when the news came that I was to be selected to be Captain , — Oh! My dear friends, the Almighty gave me a fine form and a handsome face: but I was a sinner, and had sins of the deepest dye.

The origins of Russian militarism

For Oliphant, such volumes offer neither the distinctive individuality required of memoirs nor a distinctive picture of military life. Oliphant even hazards the sacrilegious suggestion that she could have reproduced letters from many such religious memoirs and no one would have been able to tell them apart. They found ways of reading for both the specific and the general, the manly and the feminine, the Christian and the soldier.

Crimean War

That the soldier and the Sunday school teacher should appear interchangeable was the point. Although, as we have seen, they fed on the sense of contingency, bewilderment, and urgency generated by the press, the Memorials circulated in a different textual economy — and a different print economy — from that dominated by authenticity, immediacy, and topicality. In this economy a Christian life and death trumped class, gender, and even national eminence. A canny biographer, attuned to the possibilities of the moment, could create a Crimean hero from the relics of piety and remembrance.

But one might equally cite the many volumes of letters and journals, some for private and some for public circulation, worked up rapidly from the testimonies of participants and observers. In this sense, biography is one strand of a wider cultural pattern. London: Nisbet, See also, Snape, p. The Marsh family are among the examples given of this early nineteenth-century configuration of class and gender.

American versions, with much darker hatching, have him older and butcher still. The availability of photographs of soldiers both from studios and from the field of battle, as Heinz K.

  • Calls for papers – Conferences taking place in November – ESSE.
  • Politics and Piety.
  • The Life and Afterlives of Captain Hedley Vicars: Evangelical Biography and the Crimean War.

Henisch have pointed out, both underscored the common humanity of military and civilian constituencies and, at the same time, pointed up the vulnerability of the former to the latter. Significantly, the portrait of Hedley Vicars forms an important part of their evidence for the significance of photography in the wars of mid-century. Along with other innovations of Crimean representation, this democratizing of the visual representation of the soldiery helped to reshape the rhetoric, imagery, and ideology of modern war.

See Heinz K. Henisch and Bridget A. According to her biographer, Marsh favoured the North as the cause of freedom, but had friends in the South.

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The collision and lawsuit were reported in The Times , 29 July , p. See also, Smith, Hedley Vicars. Seacole in Many Lands London: Blackwood, , pp. Seacole claims, not implausibly, to have met him in both Jamaica and Crimea. Communion is part of a series of pamphlets on vegetarianism, mesmerism, phrenology, and other fashionable nineteenth-century disciplines. Despatch On 24 and 25 January the Morning Post and The Times printed a series of despatches from their special correspondents in the camp before Sebastopol recounting fatalities in early January from what we now call carbon monoxide poisoning.

Mission For Catherine Marsh, producing the Memorials was not just part of a collective reassertion of memory. It was one of the many phrases that would be taken up and recirculated to inspire young Christian men across the empire: Your Saviour mans each breach — follow Him. For a nation of eight million people, Canada's war effort was widely regarded as remarkable.

A total of , men and women served in the Canadian forces in the First World War, and of these 59, were killed and another , were wounded. There are also separate war memorials to commemorate the actions of the soldiers of Newfoundland which did not join Confederation until in the Great War. The First World War was the catalyst for the formation of Canada's air force. The Canadian government took control of the two squadrons by forming the Canadian Air Force.

During the s the British government encouraged Canada to institute a peacetime air force by providing several surplus aircraft. The Mackenzie—Papineau Battalion a volunteer unit not authorized or supported by the Canadian government fought on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War — By the summer of some 1, Canadians were involved in the conflict. Canada's parliament supported the government's decision to declare war on Germany on September 10, one week after the United Kingdom and France.

Canada went on to play an important role in the subsequent fighting in Normandy, with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division coming ashore in July and the 4th Canadian Armoured Division in August. Both a corps headquarters II Canadian Corps and eventually an army headquarters—for the first time in Canadian military history—were activated. RCAF airmen served with RAF fighter and bomber squadrons, and played key roles in the Battle of Britain , antisubmarine warfare during the Battle of the Atlantic , and the bombing campaigns against Germany.

Canadian air force personnel also provided close support to Allied forces during the Battle of Normandy and subsequent land campaigns in Europe. By the end of the war, the RCAF would be the fourth largest allied air force. The corps existed from to , was re-raised in and finally disbanded in see Canadian women during the World Wars.

In addition to the army and air units, many thousands of Canadians also served with the Canadian Merchant Navy. In all, more than 45, died, and another 55, were wounded. Bill for its Second World War veterans, with a strong economic impact similar to the American case. The formal onset of the Cold War, is usually credited to the defection of a Soviet cipher clerk working in Ottawa, Igor Gouzenko.

After the Second World War, Canada rapidly demobilized. Canadian troops fought as part of the 1st Commonwealth Division , and distinguished themselves at the Battle of Kapyong and in other land engagements. Canada sent 26, troops to fight in Korea. The aim of the merger was to reduce costs and increase operating efficiency.

It will also establish Canada as an unquestionable leader in the field of military organization.

During the domestic terrorist crisis Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau , when asked how far he was willing to go to resolving the problem, responded " Just watch me ", a phrase that has become famous in Canadian lore.