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Jacob K. Find articles by Jacob K. Find articles by Wenyan Xiao. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 20; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification required for transposable element TE silencing, genome stability, and genomic imprinting. Keywords: DNA methylation, methylome, seed, development, gene expression, dynamics, epigenetics, transposable element, plant.
Introduction DNA methylation generally refers to an addition of a methyl group onto the C5 position of cytosine to form 5-methylcytosine 5mC. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. DNA Methylation Profiles in Different Plant Organs and Tissues Previous studies showed that there is increased DNA methylation in vegetative organs, such as leaves, shoots, and roots compared with cotyledons in many species like tomato, Silene latifolia , and Arabidopsis [ 49 , 50 , 51 ].
Figure 2. Reprogramming of DNA Methylation in Gametogenesis It is controversial whether plants have a segregated germline or when the germline is differentiated during development [ 67 ]. Mechanisms of Dynamic DNA Methylation Cytosine methylation is an ancient modification that is required to maintain genomic structure and stability in many eukaryotes. Conclusions and Discussion Since the first eukaryotic DNA methylome was sequenced in base-pair resolution in Arabidopsis 10 years ago [ 66 , ], DNA methylomes of more than 50 organisms have been sequenced including many plant species, which greatly increases our knowledge about DNA methylomes.
Author Contributions Conceived and designed the work: W. Conflicts of interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Bird A. DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory. Genes Dev. Martienssen R. DNA methylation and epigenetic inheritance in plants and filamentous fungi.
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