How do we learn? How do we understand something? Where does intelligence come from? These were absolutely fascinating questions, and we still have not found any definitive answers to any of them. Where things get less interesting, for me at least, is when they started asking how we can abstract the humanness from ourselves, to disembody it, so as to put it in some other body, and debate whether that other being is also human. Honestly, I cannot see why this line of questioning is valuable.
What this kind of disembodied attempt at manifesting humanness can do, at best, is superficially mimic or simulate what one may mistakenly believe a human being to be, without any real understanding of what it actually means to be human. In fact, having spent a significant portion of my career programming, I have often found myself totally immersed in thinking from its perspective and not mine. And qualitatively speaking, I think this is analogous to the feeling of empathizing with another human being. Some with trees or even dishes.
It seems to. To claim that empathy only pertains to living things that feel does nothing but limit the potential to fully understand the human capacity for empathy, and the extent to which it is utilized in a variety of contexts. Slim, how are you going to treat this subject in a secular fashion? It barks up. I know Slim from working with him for a couple years at m aya d e s i g n in Pittsburgh.
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To empathize with the computer is to anthropomorphize. To anthropomorphize is to visit our expectations on reality. Can man make a better human? Will that human have better distinguishing human characteristics?
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Speaking of humanness, historically speaking, Artificial Intelligence referred to abilities that we thought computers were incapable of. How computer programs tackle intelligent tasks is always different from how humans actually do them;. I will be bringing my background in Computer Science and Cognitive Science along with perspectives from theoretical Computer Science, conceptual history of a i , Psychology, and Cognitive Science. I am also familiar with Psychiatry, Phenomenology, and tidbits of religion and spirituality along with a dabbling in Philosophy.
When problems are formalized, they can be solved by rules. I think we approach problems this way because our way of accessing how we think, and communicating that to other people is in the framework of rationality. I think rationality is primarily a structure for thinking about thinking. When people appear rational, we can empathize with them. Irrational people, too, but not as easily.
Part of anger is not knowing why. Does anger require a thing to be angry at? It makes no difference to you. Consider the University of Texas clock tower shooter. You can imagine being angry at him for shooting someone you know, but then you find out he had a tumor and he requested an autopsy in a note he left at his house with his dead family.
Somehow that kind of situation is a bit less angry because you know why. Understanding the mechanism changes how we think about the thing. I remember being excited about taking an a i class and learning the magic. We empathize with real people based on our concepts and experiences of other people. This is 1. So you need models of other people to empathize with them. Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc. Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans, but one requiring social and other experience over many years to bring to fruition.
Different people may develop more, or less, effective theories of mind. Yes, I will. But, allow me to first write about my experience empathizing with physical materials. I will also talk about my experience with a friend who had bipolar disorder. It is the qualitative comparison between my interaction with physical materials and my experience with my friend that solidified my theory.
Still, empathy is a feeling about feeling. My current idea of what you might be thinking seems wrong. I second Jeff on this point. Some of them are certainly empirical questions, and worth investigating more. But, I would still like to have a better grasp of your idea of empathizing with computers, and. I am now in the final stages of my Ph. Most of my work is centered around neural organization and mechanisms of object recognition, such as faces, letters, and numbers.
While I am trained as an experimentalist and my interest is pretty focused, any questions related to how the mind works triggers my interests. I wish to bring in some nonscientific and psychological ideas into the discussion.
To occupy implies taking a position, a stance, a perspective. Occupying a space allows us to take on an occupation, as a woodworker working in a wood shop, or a blacksmith in a foundry. In computation, we occupy a disembodied space. And as a result, the space of computation is reflective, much like a mirror. Through it, we can see our disembodied selves reflect back at us, giving us a perspective on ourselves that we may not have had otherwise.
I have also come to think of space as a medium for acting. In a computational space, our cursors move as a proxy of our minds. And in doing so, the space of computation works once again like a mirror. Through it, we can see our desires for action reflect back at us, and manifest at a distance.
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Finally, I have come to think of space as that which completes the self. Space allows us to distinguish between the self and the other, between the self in the present and the self in the past. In the space of computation, we become aware of where our body ends, and the mind continues. And we can lose sight of where one mind ends, and another begins. I know many of us think of computation as merely a means of simulation, calculation, or distribution.
So, for the remainder of this book, I would like you to seriously consider what it would mean to think of computation as space. A space with the potential to give us perspective, invite agency, and raise self-awareness. By illuminating our lack of freedom to enact such a seemingly simple gesture on a piece of digital document, the film challenges you to critically rethink the nature of your relationship to personal computing.
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Much of what we do everyday involves re-enacting verbs on things. For example, trimming a piece of paper may be described as reenacting the verb cut on the piece of paper. But for the average person, reenacting verbs on files tends to involve many more steps, and takes a much longer time to complete.
If our hands are tied up, we can even use our teeth. This is freedom. It does this almost universally, for children and grown-ups, men and women, novices and experts. The computer facilitates a relational encounter with a formal system. One result may be a devaluation of authentic experience in a relationship. I understand that your research deals with the process of learning and risk taking. Could you start by. An American Professor of Psychology who focuses his major research interests on infant behavior and development, the effects of early experience on later development and behavior, perinatal risk factors and their role in developmental destinies, crib death, and adolescent risk-taking behavior.
The threads running through all of these pursuits relate to learning processes and the role of pleasure and annoyance reinforcement features as determinants of learning. Frost, Robert. Gantt, W. Sun Microsystems, 20 02 Pelletier, Louise. Penny, Simon. Enright, Joanna Kilmartin, and Terence Kilmartin. New York: Modern Library, Rifkin, Jeremy.
Hamming, Richard W. Morris Research and Engineering Center, Morristown. Harvey, David. Hagen, Uta. Kramarae, Cheris.
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