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Volume II discusses individual polymers and their industrial syntheses, Volume III the fundamentals of physical structures and properties, and Volume IV the processing and application of polymers as plastics, fibers, elastomers, thickeners, etc. The world of macromolecules in a nutshell. After habilitation at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich in , he was appointed Senior Lecturer and later a professor of organic-chemical technology. During these years, he also worked as consultant to the polymer industry in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and expert witness to companies and the court.
He was an in-house consultant at The Dow Chemical Co. He continues to teach occasionally at MMI.
Professor Elias has published more than scientific and technical papers and two patents on the synthesis, characterization, structure, properties, and application of synthetic and biological polymers. Demet Sag, PhD. Driver Mutations. Part 1: Transposon-mediated tumorigenesis,. Modeling the Morbid Human Genome. This volume of articles addresses the current dilemma of our time.
Plant Biotechnology and Genetics: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, 2nd Edition
This is because we have had a succession of wars in a post WWII that on the one hand, spurred technology innovation to a level of accomplishment in the 20th century surpassing the previous three hundred years, and which has accelerated in the first ten years of the 21st century.
This has been equally good for the very young, and it remains to be seen, for the post-baby boomers. We are also faced with the costs of a long term debt from a prolonged engagement in hegemonic foreign policy and a 15 year period of risky investments, dominated by a housing market crash. Despite these problems the basic research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology has reaped benefits that are leading to a new emerging framework for a more consolidated pharmaceutical industry required to set higher standards, to identify drug targets, to diminish toxicity risks and identify problems in the earliest phase of Clinical Trials, and to take on the greatest challenges that seemed insurmountable before.
This result is leading to a not nearly mature, but enthusiastic embrace of personalized medicine. This is already resulting in a different engagement between the patient and physician, a redefinition of how clinical trials are to be carried out, and a better underpinning of the systems biology approach to medical discovery — by cooperative arrangements between government and universities, and with industry. The future continues to be just around the corner! We find that disease manifests in different ways in some organ systems, and to some extent, reflected in the ontogeny which recapitulates phylogeny.
The best example is the observation that carcinoma of the lung, liver, gall bladder, oral cavity, esophagus, and colon, have genomic imprints in common that are not strongly featured in other types of cancer. So we have on the one hand, cancer cells that are less differentiated than their parent, and on the other hand, more like cancer cells from the same post-embryonic cell line than those from other cell lines. A challenge that came out of this is to determine at what time in the stage of disease progression, intervention is most effective. This was not long after Feynman lost his wife to cancer, and he concluded without reservations that the doctors at the Mayo Clinic had nothing to work with.
The new model for discovery in the field is bacteria, cells grown in culture, sea urchin, plant seeds, eukaryotes,..
The regulatory function of the genome is waiting to be discovered. The focus is on DNA replication, cell division, uncontrolled proliferation, an explanation for the balance between synthetic and catabolic processes, and the effects of oxidative stress that leads to signaling pathways and the allosteric behavior of phosphofructokinase PFK. Keywords: replication, transcription, covalent bond, nucleus, nucleoside, nucleotide, nucleotide sequences, DNA, Double Helix, RNA, chromosome, telomere, telomerase. This work is now proceeding in several prestigious academic centers, and leads from the gene to the deconstruction of the genome.
The discovery of nucleotide base pairs that code for the entire genome is underway. There are changes in nucleotide sequences that become a basis for mutation analysis. At this time, there is an emerging revolution in computational and applied mathematical support, just as the 21 st millenium arrives. Now we find variation in copy-number, short sequence repeats, single-nucleotide polymorphisms. What do these findings mean? In addition, some portions of the genome are carried over from ancient ancestral roots. Keywords: metabolic control, histone, nucleus, nucleosome, phosphorylation, polymeric structure, cellular proliferation, Single-nucleotide SNP , copy-number variation, oligonucleotide, alleles.
Fibonacci numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, , …. It is the same proportion, which controls by morphology of natural organisms such, as a pinecone, cactus, pineapple, etc. The support of computational power and price decreases in the cost of storage leads to Big Data. It is this factor that gives life to bioinformatics and computational biology. This enables the linking of the genome, or polynucleotide sequences to cellular metabolic activity. Keywords: genome, proteome, metabolome, transcriptome, computational models, big data, spectrometry, cytoskeleton, mitochondrion, mDNA, cell membrane plasticity, cellular movement.
Larry H. This chapter deals entirely with the cataloguing of the genetic code, and unlocking polynucleotide sequences that have association with identified diseases. This will lead to specific genomic targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept of DNA as a static entity eventually gave rise to a more dynamic biomolecule as studies discovered how gene regulation, alternative splice sites, single nucleotide polymorphisms, transposable DNA elements, microRMAs, and epigenetics could alter the cellular phenotype and function in physiology and disease.
As a result, researchers started to shift from studying the effects of single genes to a more global genetic view that alterations of genetic networks were important in disease manifestations. These studies became possible with the advent of high throughput technologies and increased computing power. As a result, a paradigm shift from studying one gene at a time to studying thousands of genes at one time , resulted in the research presented in this Chapter.
There are a number of very active genomic research centers investigating genomic sequence changes on a large scale and linking the genetic data to disease. Keywords: Next-generation sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, personalized medicine, signaling pathways, cytokine, DNA-histone interaction. The discussion now moves further into the previously unexplored regulatory functions of the gene. There is a profound interaction between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, the cell membrane, and the ribosome.
This is the link between our understanding an important function in the genome that is essential to get to an understanding of how to set therapeutic targets. Keywords: noncovalent bond, mutagenesis, DNA repair, apoptosis and mitophagy , response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell organelle interactions, ubiquitination, ribosomes and ribophagy, methylation, synthetic nucleotides, hydrophobic repulsion, phosphofructokinase PFK , allostericity, cytochromes and electron transport.
Principles and Practices of Plant Genomics: Advanced Genomics v. 3 Hardcover - PDF Free Download
Advances in technologies such as microarray, CGH analysis, proteomics, methylation arrays, and tissue arrays allowed us to 1 investigate the global changing landscape within the cell and tissues, and 2 apply these analyses on a massive scale. Medical research began to realize the utility and application of these technologies to clinical problems, both to disease etiology and later to tailoring therapeutic strategies based on molecular signatures unique to a patient. Genomic strategies are now mainstream for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple diseases.
- Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press Books?
- Molecular biology - Wikipedia.
- Lipophilicity in Drug Action and Toxicology;
- Nolos Quick LLC: All You Need to Know About Limited Liability Companies, Fourth Edition.
The following chapters describe some of the recent advances using Genomics in Medicine. Personalized medicine is the individualized treatment of patients based on a historical knowledge, and more exactly, a bioinformational adjustment of the treatment to the patient based on 1 known pharmacologic toxicity because of genetically determined kinetically-based modification of the expected response to a drug, 2 application of a drug matched to the patient based on drug targeting for the illness, 3 targeted therapy to give the maximal response and to minimize toxicity.
The medications used for a significant number of diseases were based on targeting the physiochemical dysfunction without the ability to attack the root cause of illness. This has brought repeated reapplication of old drugs for new uses, development of drug resistance, and limited long term success for chronic diseases.
Genomics-based personalized medicine is the promise to realize a greater benefit to the patient, and at reduced long term costs. Keywords: personalized medicine, individualized treatment, genomic-compatible treatment, biopharmaceutical, targeted therapy, toxicities, dose-response curve, liver metabolism, bioelimination, side-effects. Genomic therapy is under rapid development in biopharmaceutic therapeutics.
Keywords: personalized medicine, genome therapeutics, code switches, nanotechnology, downregulation, signaling pathways, epigenome, translational medicine. Tilda Barlyia, PhD. Personalized medicine has been introduced with respect to the patient and the promise. The long time required to bring a drug to market is related to the Clinical Trials prior to introduction. FDA is making progress in meeting the surge in biopharmaceutical, although some drug classes have had multiple failures. A part of the picture that is overlooked is the development of biomarkers, either proteomic, or peptide, or polynucleotide assays that can be used to follow the treatment.
In the future, drugs will not be approved without the introduction of such a biomarker. In addition, the analytical tools are being developed for use near the patient, and nanotechnology with multispecimen automation is not far away. This progress will directly affect physician decision-making. Keywords: WGS, NGS, SNPs, applying genome sequencing to disease, mutagenesis, DNA repair, apoptosis and mitophagy, response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cell organelle interactions, ubiquitination, methylation, synthetic nucleotides.
Genomics is shaping the future of the pharmaceutical industry with a shift from organic medicinal chemistry aimed at targeting neuroendocrine receptors and drugs that interact with accessible circulating proteins or cell receptors with the knowledge that the approach may have limited efficacy, to a targeting of key genomic functions that have established links to specific diseases, which moves into bioinformatics, biotechnology, biopharmaceuticals individual tailored treatment goals.
Keywords: medicinal chemistry, biopharmaceutical genomics, personalized medicine, patient-specific therapy, treatment targets, genomic medicine. The discovery of leukemia was by Rudolph Virchow, who was the father of modern pathology, but he also visited the wards on a daily basis. He observed the leukemic cells under the microscope, and he identified the proliferation of myeloid and lymphocytic cell lines that later led to classifications based on nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, abnormal nuclear changes, and later, changes identified with histologic stains that have not shifted to genomic biomarkers.
Next was the closely related, solid tumor of the lymphoid-immune system, which could be irradiated, and which had variable prognosis depending on the mix of small and large lymphocytes and the distortion of the structure. Virchow had concerns about his students becoming over-reliant on the morphology. It has eosinophils sprinkled in the lymphocytic tumor. The early pioneers were Lawrence Berman Detroit , Rappaport Chicago , and the early classification was developed in before lymphoid cells were divided into B-cells and T-cells. Then came the Lukes Collins modifications in Good and colleagues made, extensive studies of the bases of immunologic tolerance and strategies for producing immunologic tolerance experimentally Good discovered that plasma cells are the major antibody elements in the mammalian system, independent of, but parallel to the critical contributions of Fagraeus of Sweden Bruce Glick and later by Max Cooper and Robert Good, demonstrated that the bursa of Fabricius is necessary for B antibody producing cell development in birds by removal of the bursa in newly born chicks.
The bursa is an epithelial and lymphoid organ that is found only in birds, and its equivalent in mammals is the lymphatic system derived from bone marrow and spleen, distinguished from thymic derived lymphocytes, or T-cells. In thymectomized animals, the ability to reject allografts, and to mount delayed hypersensitivity responses, was drastically reduced. By the mids, immunologists were convinced that there were indeed two separate arms of the immune system: one dealing exclusively with the production of circulating antibodies humoral immunity , and another that is involved in the delayed hypersensitivity-type reactions and graft rejections cell-mediated immunity.